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Iskra Pavlova

28 April 2022
Economic Bulletin Issue 3, 2022
The gradual phasing-out of the pandemic collateral easing measures in three steps between July 2022 and March 2024 will restore the Eurosystem’s pre-pandemic risk tolerance in its collateral framework, while avoiding cliff effects in collateral availability. The collateral easing measures introduced in April 2020 facilitated banks’ access to Eurosystem credit operations by adding around €285 billion of collateral, playing an important role in supporting the provision of credit to the economy during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The ECB will continue to waive the minimum credit quality requirement for Greek government bonds (GGBs), allowing national central banks (NCBs) to accept them as collateral at least as long as reinvestments in such bonds under the pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP) continue.
JEL Code
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
E65 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook→Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
G01 : Financial Economics→General→Financial Crises
19 April 2017
This report updates and extends earlier assessments of quantitative inflation perceptions and expectations of consumers in the euro area and the EU using an anonymised micro data set collected by the European Commission in the context of the Harmonised EU Programme of Business and Consumer Surveys. Confirming earlier findings, consumers' quantitative estimates of inflation are found to be higher than actual HICP (Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices) inflation over the entire sample period (2004-2015). The analysis shows that European consumers hold different opinions of inflation depending on their income, age, education and gender. Although many of the features highlighted for the EU and the euro area aggregates are valid across individual Member States, differences exist also at the country level. Despite the higher inflation estimates, there is a high level of co-movement between measured and estimated (perceived/expected) inflation. Even respondents providing estimates largely above actual HICP inflation, demonstrate understanding of the relative level of inflation during both high and low inflation periods. Based on these economically plausible results, the report concludes that further work should be devoted to defining concrete aggregate indicators of consumers' quantitative inflation perceptions and expectations on the basis of the dataset used in this study. Moreover, it outlines a number of future research topics that can be addressed by exploiting the enormous potential of the data set.
JEL Code
D8 : Microeconomics→Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D12 : Microeconomics→Household Behavior and Family Economics→Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
E31 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Price Level, Inflation, Deflation